The Netdata web server is
static-threaded, with a fixed, configurable number of threads.
All the threads are concurrently listening for web requests on the same sockets, and the kernel distributes the incoming requests to them. Each thread uses non-blocking I/O so it can serve any number of web requests in parallel.
This web server respects the
keep-alive HTTP header to serve multiple HTTP requests via the same connection.
From within your Netdata config directory (typically
sudo ./edit-config netdata.conf
Scroll down to the
[web] section to find the following settings.
|Declare the location of an SSL key to enable HTTPS.|
|Declare the location of an SSL certificate to enable HTTPS.|
|Choose which TLS version to use. While all versions are allowed (|
|Choose which TLS cipher to use. Options include |
|See single exponential smoothing.|
|See double exponential smoothing.|
|Turns on (|
|The port backlog. Check |
|The listen port for the static web server.|
|The user that owns the web static files. Netdata will refuse to serve a file that is not owned by this user, even if it has read access to that file. If the user given is not found, Netdata will only serve files owned by user given in |
|If this is set, Netdata will check if the file is owned by this group and refuse to serve the file if it's not.|
|The time in seconds to disconnect web clients after being totally idle.|
|How long to wait for a client to send a request before closing the socket. Prevents slow request attacks.|
|Can be used to set a limit on how often a parent node will accept streaming requests from child nodes in a streaming and replication setup.|
|If set to |
|Avoid clickjacking attacks, by ensuring that the content is not embedded into other sites.|
|Declare which IP addresses or full-qualified domain names (FQDNs) are allowed to connect to the web server, including the dashboard or HTTP API. This is a global setting with higher priority to any of the ones below.|
|See the access list examples for details on using |
|When set to |
|Valid settings are |
|Valid settings are 1 (fastest) to 9 (best ratio).|
|How many processor threads the web server is allowed. The default is system-specific, the minimum of |
|Available sockets. The default is system-specific, automatically adjusted to 50% of the max number of open files Netdata is allowed to use (via |
|Specifies the location of a custom |
Disable the web server
Disable the web server by editing
netdata.conf and setting:
mode = none
Change the number of threads
Control the number of threads and sockets with the following settings:
web server threads = 4
web server max sockets = 512
Binding Netdata to multiple ports
Netdata can bind to multiple IPs and ports, offering access to different services on each. Up to 100 sockets can be used (increase it at compile time with
CFLAGS="-DMAX_LISTEN_FDS=200" ./netdata-installer.sh ...).
The ports to bind are controlled via
[web].bind to, like this:
default port = 19999
bind to = 127.0.0.1=dashboard^SSL=optional 10.1.1.1:19998=management|netdata.conf hostname:19997=badges [::]:19996=streaming^SSL=force localhost:19995=registry *:http=dashboard unix:/run/netdata/netdata.sock
Using the above, Netdata will bind to:
- IPv4 127.0.0.1 at port 19999 (port was used from
default port). Only the UI (dashboard) and the read API will be accessible on this port. Both HTTP and HTTPS requests will be accepted.
- IPv4 10.1.1.1 at port 19998. The management API and
netdata.confwill be accessible on this port.
- All the IPs
hostnameresolves to (both IPv4 and IPv6 depending on the resolved IPs) at port 19997. Only badges will be accessible on this port.
- All IPv6 IPs at port 19996. Only metric streaming requests from other Netdata agents will be accepted on this port. Only encrypted streams will be allowed (i.e. child nodes also need to be configured for TLS.
- All the IPs
localhostresolves to (both IPv4 and IPv6 depending the resolved IPs) at port 19996. This port will only accept registry API requests.
- All IPv4 and IPv6 IPs at port
httpas set in
/etc/services. Only the UI (dashboard) and the read API will be accessible on this port.
- Unix domain socket
/run/netdata/netdata.sock. All requests are serviceable on this socket. Note that in some OSs like Fedora, every service sees a different
/tmp, so don't create a Unix socket under
[web].default port is used when an entries in
[web].bind to do not specify a port.
Note that the access permissions specified with the
=request type|request type|... format are available from version 1.12 onwards.
As shown in the example above, these permissions are optional, with the default being to permit all request types on the specified port.
The request types are strings identical to the
allow X from directives of the access lists, i.e.
The access lists themselves and the general setting
allow connections from in the next section are applied regardless of the ports that are configured to provide these services.
The API requests are serviced as follows:
dashboardgives access to the UI, the read API and badges API calls.
badgesgives access only to the badges API calls.
managementgives access only to the management API calls.
Enable HTTPS/TLS support
Since v1.16.0, Netdata supports encrypted HTTP connections to the web server, plus encryption of streaming data to a parent from its child nodes, via the TLS protocol.
Inbound unix socket connections are unaffected, regardless of the TLS settings.
While Netdata uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.2 to encrypt communications rather than the obsolete SSL protocol, it's still common practice to refer to encrypted web connections as
SSL. Many vendors, like Nginx and even Netdata itself, use
SSLin configuration files, whereas documentation will always refer to encrypted communications as
To enable TLS, provide the path to your certificate and private key in the
[web] section of
ssl key = /etc/netdata/ssl/key.pem
ssl certificate = /etc/netdata/ssl/cert.pem
Both files must be readable by the
netdata user. If either of these files do not exist or are unreadable, Netdata will fall back to HTTP. For a parent-child connection, only the parent needs these settings.
For test purposes, generate self-signed certificates with the following command:
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -sha512 -x509 -days 365 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem
If you use 4096 bits for your key and the certificate, Netdata will need more CPU to process the communication.
rsa4096can be up to 4 times slower than
rsa2048, so we recommend using 2048 bits. Verify the difference by running:
openssl speed rsa2048 rsa4096
Select TLS version
Beginning with version
v1.21.0, specify the TLS version and the ciphers that you want to use:
tls version = 1.3
tls ciphers = TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384:TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256:TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
If you do not specify these options, Netdata will use the highest available protocol version on your system and the default cipher list for that protocol provided by your TLS implementation.
When the certificates are defined and unless any other options are provided, a Netdata server will:
- Redirect all incoming HTTP web server requests to HTTPS. Applies to the dashboard, the API,
- Allow incoming child connections to use both unencrypted and encrypted communications for streaming.
To change this behavior, you need to modify the
bind to setting in the
[web] section of
netdata.conf. At the end of each port definition, append
^SSL=optional. What happens with these settings differs, depending on whether the port is used for HTTP/S requests, or for streaming.
|SSL setting||HTTP requests||HTTPS requests||Unencrypted Streams||Encrypted Streams|
|none||Redirected to HTTPS||Accepted||Accepted||Accepted|
|Redirected to HTTPS||Accepted||Denied||Accepted|
bind to = *=dashboard|registry|badges|management|streaming|netdata.conf^SSL=force
For information how to configure the child to use TLS, check securing the communication in the streaming documentation. There you will find additional details on the expected behavior for client and server nodes, when their respective TLS options are enabled.
When we define the use of SSL in a Netdata agent for different ports, Netdata will apply the behavior specified on each port. For example, using the configuration line below:
bind to = *=dashboard|registry|badges|management|streaming|netdata.conf^SSL=force *:20000=netdata.conf^SSL=optional *:20001=dashboard|registry
- Force all HTTP requests to the default port to be redirected to HTTPS (same port).
- Refuse unencrypted streaming connections from child nodes on the default port.
- Allow both HTTP and HTTPS requests to port 20000 for
- Force HTTP requests to port 20001 to be redirected to HTTPS (same port). Only allow requests for the dashboard, the read API and the registry on port 20001.
When you start using Netdata with TLS, you may find errors in the Netdata log, which is stored at
/var/log/netdata/error.log by default.
Most of the time, these errors are due to incompatibilities between your browser's options related to TLS/SSL protocols and Netdata's internal configuration. The most common error is
In the near future, Netdata will allow our users to change the internal configuration to avoid similar errors. Until then, we're recommending only the most common and safe encryption protocols listed above.
Netdata supports access lists in
allow connections from = localhost *
allow dashboard from = localhost *
allow badges from = *
allow streaming from = *
allow netdata.conf from = localhost fd* 10.* 192.168.* 172.16.* 172.17.* 172.18.* 172.19.* 172.20.* 172.21.* 172.22.* 172.23.* 172.24.* 172.25.* 172.26.* 172.27.* 172.28.* 172.29.* 172.30.* 172.31.*
allow management from = localhost
* does string matches on the IPs or FQDNs of the clients.
allow connections frommatches anyone that connects on the Netdata port(s). So, if someone is not allowed, it will be connected and disconnected immediately, without reading even a single byte from its connection. This is a global setting with higher priority to any of the ones below.
allow dashboard fromreceives the request and examines if it is a static dashboard file or an API call the dashboards do.
allow badges fromchecks if the API request is for a badge. Badges are not matched by
allow dashboard from.
allow streaming fromchecks if the child willing to stream metrics to this Netdata is allowed. This can be controlled per API KEY and MACHINE GUID in
stream.conf. The setting in
netdata.confis checked before the ones in
allow netdata.conf fromchecks the IP to allow
http://netdata.host:19999/netdata.conf. The IPs listed are all the private IPv4 addresses, including link local IPv6 addresses. Keep in mind that connections to Netdata API ports are filtered by
allow connections from. So, IPs allowed by
allow netdata.conf fromshould also be allowed by
allow connections from.
allow management fromchecks the IPs to allow API management calls. Management via the API is currently supported for health
In order to check the FQDN of the connection without opening the Netdata agent to DNS-spoofing, a reverse-dns record must be setup for the connecting host. At connection time the reverse-dns of the peer IP address is resolved, and a forward DNS resolution is made to validate the IP address against the name-pattern.
Please note that this process can be expensive on a machine that is serving many connections. Each access list has an associated configuration option to turn off DNS-based patterns completely to avoid incurring this cost at run-time:
allow connections by dns = heuristic
allow dashboard by dns = heuristic
allow badges by dns = heuristic
allow streaming by dns = heuristic
allow netdata.conf by dns = no
allow management by dns = heuristic
The three possible values for each of these options are
heuristic option disables
the check when the pattern only contains IPv4/IPv6 addresses or
localhost, and enables it when wildcards are
present that may match DNS FQDNs.
If you publish your Netdata web server to the internet, you may want to apply some protection against DDoS:
- Use the
static-threadedweb server (it is the default)
- Use reasonable
[web].web server max sockets(the default is)
- Don't use all your CPU cores for Netdata (lower
[web].web server threads)
- Run the
netdataprocess with a low process scheduling priority (the default is the lowest)
- If possible, proxy Netdata via a full featured web server (Nginx, Apache, etc)
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